It’s important for EV owners to understand how fast EVs can be charged from home. How long it takes to fully charge depends on both the EV battery power and the power output of the charging unit. This article explores exactly how fast you can expect your home charger to completely charge an electric car.
How fast can you charge an electric car at home?
To work out how fast you can charge your electric car at home, simply divide the battery capacity of your EV by the power output of your charging unit.
EV battery capacity (measured in kWh) / Charging unit power (measured in kW)
= Approximate charging time
Here are the average charging times for EV batteries using a granny charger, a 7kW charger, a 22 kW charger and a 50 kW rapid charger:
Average EV charging times
|Battery Size||Granny Charger||7 kW Charger||22 kW Charger||50 kW Charger|
|30 kWh battery||15-20 hours||4-5 hours||1-2 hours||30-40 minutes|
|40 kWh battery||20-27 hours||5-7 hours||2-3 hours||40-50 minutes|
|50 kWh battery||25-33 hours||6-8 hours||2-4 hours||50-60 minutes|
|60 kWh battery||30-40 hours||8-10 hours||3-5 hours||60-70 minutes|
|70 kWh battery||35-47 hours||9-11 hours||3-6 hours||70-80 minutes|
|80 kWh battery||40-53 hours||10-13 hours||4-7 hours||80-90 minutes|
|90 kWh battery||45-60 hours||11-14 hours||4-8 hours||90-100 minutes|
|100 kWh battery||50-67 hours||13-16 hours||5-9 hours||100-110 minutes|
|110 kWh battery||55-73 hours||14-18 hours||6-10 hours||110-120 minutes|
*This table provides estimated average charging times based on the assumption of an average charging rate range, the battery size is divided by the charging power. How fast you can charge your EV will vary depending on the specific EV model and battery condition
What impacts how fast an EV battery charges?
EV batteries play a significant role in determining charging times. Here’s how EV batteries affect charging times:
- Battery Capacity
The capacity of an EV battery, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh), directly impacts charging times and range (mi/kWh). Not surprisingly, a larger battery will take longer to charge than a smaller one.
- Battery State of Charge (SOC)
The current state of charge of the battery will have an impact on charging times. Generally, EVs charge faster when the battery’s SOC is lower and slow down as it reaches higher charge levels. This is because the charging process often follows a non-linear charging curve, with charging speeds tapering off as the battery nears full capacity.
- Battery Management System (BMS)
The BMS of an EV battery plays a crucial role in optimizing charging performance and ensuring battery health and safety. The BMS monitors various parameters such as temperature, voltage, and current during charging. It regulates the charging process, including adjusting the charging rate to protect the battery from overcharging, overheating, and other adverse conditions.
- The temperature of an EV battery can have an impact on the speed at which a battery charges. The optimum temperature of an EV battery is between 20-40 degrees, anything outside of this range (either too hot or cold) will impact the speed of charge.
- The condition of an EV battery will deteriorate over time and this will impact the ability to charge.
How fast can you charge an EV at home with a 3-pin plug?
Charging an electric vehicle at home using a standard 3-pin plug is by far the slowest charging option available, even if you use the best granny charger available. The charging speed primarily depends on the power rating of the plug, which is typically around 2-3 kilowatts (kW). Here’s an estimation of the charging speed and time using a 3-pin plug:
- Charging Speed
A 3-pin plug typically provides a charging speed of around 2-3 kW. This translates to approximately 2-5 miles of range per hour of charging, depending on the specific EV model and its efficiency.
- Charging Time
The charging time using a 3-pin plug can be significant, especially for larger battery sizes. For example, consider an EV with a 40 kWh battery: Assuming an average charging rate of 2-3 kW (based on a 3-pin plug), the charging time for a full charge would be around 20-27 hours.
Charging an EV with a 3-pin plug is often referred to as “trickle charging” due to the slower charging rate. While it is convenient for overnight or prolonged charging at home, it’s not great when you need to quickly charge the vehicle or when you have a larger battery size that requires faster charging.
How fast can you charge an EV at home with a 7kW charger?
Moving up in power from a 3-pin plug is a dedicated 7kW charging unit. If your property meets the requirements to install an EV charger, then this is a faster charging solution than a 3-pin plug.
Here’s an estimation of the charging speed and time using a 7 kW charger:
- Charging Speed
A 7 kW charger provides a charging speed of 7 kilowatts, which is significantly faster than a standard 3-pin plug. This translates to approximately 10-30 miles of range per hour of charging, depending on the specific EV model and its efficiency.
- Charging Time The charging time using a 7 kW charger is much shorter compared to a 3-pin plug. Let’s consider an example of an EV equipped with a 40 kWh battery: Assuming an average charging rate of 7 kW, the charging time for a full charge would be approximately 5-7 hours.
How fast can you charge an EV at home with a 22kW charger?
In order to install a 22kW charger, the property power supply needs to be 3-phase power (most UK homes are single-phase). You can read our guide on how to get 3-phase power at home for further information on how to upgrade your supply. Here’s an estimation of the charging speed and time using a 22 kW charger:
- Charging Speed
A 22 kW charger delivers a charging speed of 22 kilowatts, which is significantly faster than both a 3-pin plug and a 7 kW charger. This translates to approximately 30-90 miles of range per hour of charging, depending on the specific EV model and its efficiency.
- Charging Time
The charging time using a 22 kW charger is notably shorter compared to lower-power charging options. Let’s consider an example with an EV equipped with a 40 kWh battery: Assuming an average charging rate of 22 kW, the charging time for a full charge would be approximately 2-3 hours.
Can I get a 50kW rapid charger at home?
Rapid or ultra-rapid chargers are generally not suitable for home use, they are public charge points found in retail parks or supermarkets, capable of much faster charging times. These high-power chargers often require specific infrastructure and electrical connections, which are not typically found in residential settings.
For home charging, the most common options are 3-pin plugs (granny chargers, 7 kW, and 22 kW.
What is the fastest way to charge an EV at home?
The fastest way to charge an EV at home is with a dedicated 22kW charging unit. You will need to upgrade your electricity in order to install this type of charger. By installing a high-power 22kW charger, you can significantly reduce charging times compared to using a standard 3-pin plug or 7kW. The exact charging speeds will depend on the specific power rating of the charger, the EV’s onboard charger capacity, and other factors such as battery size and efficiency.
How often should I charge my EV at home?
How often you charge your EV will depend on your usage. If you only drive short distances you will not need to charge your EV every day. It’s worth knowing that if you charge your EV every night then you may be contributing to the degrading of your battery.
EV batteries will naturally degrade over time with use, but if you charge your EV more often than is needed then you are speeding up this process. According to a study by the University of Michigan, the optimum state of charge for an EV battery is between 30 and 80% full, so you should be aiming to keep the vehicle at this range to preserve the battery life.
How to optimise EV home charging?
The single most efficient tool to optimise home charging is a Smart charger. Smart chargers will charge your EV at the lowest cost because they manage the rate and time of energy flow into your vehicle. This means that they are able to pause charging if the energy demand and costs increase and resume charging as the demand and costs reduce.
How does ‘top-up’ charging work?
‘Top-up’ charging, also known as partial charging or partial top-up, refers to the practice of charging an electric vehicle battery to a desired level below its maximum capacity. The University of Michigan research tells us that the optimum battery state of charge is between 30 and 80%, therefore instead of allowing the battery to drop below 30%, it may be more beneficial for drivers to continuously ‘top up’ when charging either at home or in public charge points at supermarkets or car parks.
This is a shift from the petrol car mindset of letting the tank run near empty and then filling completely, topping up is an efficient method to keep you ready for a journey whilst maintaining the life of the battery.
Is it cheaper to charge an EV at home?
It is cheaper to charge an EV at home. You will be able to utilise your smart charger to secure the cheapest electricity rates overnight. Energy companies will combine EV chargers with overnight EV tariffs, which makes them one of the best EV charger installers for cheap charging rates. Public charge points will cost more especially if you use a rapid or an ultra-rapid charging station.
It is possible to find free EV charge stations in public car parks, retail parks and supermarkets across the UK. You will need to buy something from the business while you charge, so it may not necessarily be cheaper than charging your EV from home. However, if you are planning to make that purchase anyway then it’s worth topping up your EV at the same time.
Does an EV lose charge when parked?
Batteries will deplete when EVs are parked but only at a minimal rate. Most EVs can remain parked for many months at a time without losing significant charge. Certain electric cars will have a power save mode which will reduce the drain on the battery when an EV is parked for a long period of time.
Can an EV be charged in 10 minutes?
It is not yet possible to charge an EV within 10 minutes. According to this research by the American Chemical Society, a 10-minute charging time will be possible within 5 years. The American Chemical Society research demonstrates that they have found a method of maximising the power a battery can store in a short period of time, they hope to put it into practice by 2027 and beat the magic 10-minute charging time.
The final word on how fast you can charge your EV from home
How fast you can charge an EV from home will depend upon the battery power of your EV and the power output of the home charging station. There is a simple formula to work out the approximate time it will take to charge an EV:
EV Battery Power (measured in kWh) / Charging unit power (measured in kW)
= Approximate charging time
The larger the EV battery the longer it will take for a battery to fully charge.
The rate of charge will be increased if you choose to install a higher-power charger. Home charger options range from a 2.3kW 3-pin plug to a 22kW dedicated fast charger (this requires 3-phase electricity to be installed).
There are factors which can impact the charging time for an EV, including the condition and temperature of the battery and the current state of charge. Research suggests that EV owners should try to maintain between 30% and 80% charge in a vehicle in order to preserve the battery long-term. Top-up charging is a recommended method to look after your battery, if you are keeping your battery ‘topped up’ it should never deplete completely or charge above 80% capacity (unless you really need to for a longer journey).
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John is the Editor and Spokesperson for Electric Car Guide.
With over 20 years of writing experience, he has written for titles such as City AM, FE News and NerdWallet.com, covering various automotive and personal finance topics.
John’s market commentary has been covered by the likes of The Express, The Independent, Yahoo Finance and The Evening Standard.